1. A friend is concerned because her doctor told her she would be more likely to lose weight by eating regularly and not skipping meals. However, when she eats breakfast, she is always hungry long before lunchtime. When she skips breakfast, sometimes she is not even hungry for lunch. You have just learned that skipping a meal slows the body’s metabolic rate. If metabolic rate is slowed, weight loss is slowed. Therefore, you tell her that she is more likely to lose weight by eating four to six small healthy meals a day instead of eating only one large meal. In other words each time your friend skips a meal (stimulus), the metabolic rate slows down ( response), and the individual is less hungry (stimulus is magnified). This case study exemplifies homeostasis by:
b. negative feedback
d. positive feedback
- Which one of the following chemical reactions represents the body’s primary method of energy storage.
a. The production of lactic acid from the breakdown of glycogen
b. The production of ATP from ADP molecules and phosphates
c. The production of ATP from lactic acid
d. The production of ADP from the breakdown of ATP and phosphates
- Which statement below best supports the theory that all human cells contain a nucleus
a. The genetic code (DNA) is stored in the nucleus
b. Centrioles required for DNA cell division are stored in the nucleus
c. Ribosomes necessary for translation of DNA are stored in the nucleus.
d. Cellular division and and growth occurs in the nucleus.
- Human beings are made up of roughly 75 trillion cells. What two processes are primarily responsible for turning one single cell at conception into a human being?
a. Mitosis and differentiation
b. Mitosis and meiosis
c. Mitosis interphase
d. Mycosis and mitosis
- Which answer below lists the four main tissue types in the human body?
a. Squamous, columnar, stratified, cuboidal
b. Connective, adipose, epithelial, glandular
c. Connective, adipose, epithelial, nervous
d. Epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous
- Which statement below best describes the relationship between body tissues and membranes?
a. Body tissues function independently, but membranes do not.
b. body membranes combine to form tissues
c. Body tissues combine to form membranes
d. Body membranes are made up of cells, but tissues are not.
- Which one of the statements best describes the difference between the nervous system and the endocrine system?
a. The endocrine system produces changes in the body’s internal environment that are long term, while the nervous system produces a more short term changes.
b. The nervous system is involved in the regulation and coordination for the body’s internal environment, while the endocrine system is not.
c. The nervous system is composed of ductless glands whose secretions regulate the cellular activities of other organ systems
d. The endocrine system and the nervous system work completely independently of one another.
- Which of the following organs belong to both the endocrine and the reproductive systems?
a. The urethra and the testes
b. the ovaries and the prostate
c. the ovaries and the testes
d. the uterus and the testes
- Three most common ways that pathogens are spread include ________________, _____________, and _______________ transmission.
a. Person to person; genetic; vector
b. person to person; environmental; vector
c. person to person: environmental; genetic
d. genetic; environmental; vector
- Three primary methods used in the US for controlling the spread of infectious diseases include:
a. vector control, chemotherapy, and vaccinations
b. radiation, aseptic techniques and vaccinations
c. aseptic techniques, quarantine, and vaccinations
d. chemotherapy, aseptic techniques and vaccinations
- Which one of the following proteins coats the surface of the skin and forms the basic structure of the hair and nails?
- Which one of the following is an example of unevenly distributed melanin?
- Bone is an example of ___________________ and is comprised mainly of ____________ and ______________.
a. an organ, calcium, cartilage fibers
b. an organ, calcium, collagen fibers
c. supporting connective tissue, calcium, collagen fibers
d. supporting connective tissue, calcium and cartilage fibers
- The leg bones of a marathon runner might be thicker and stronger than the leg bones of a swimmer because jogging stresses the leg bones and more, thereby:
a. decreasing osteoblast activity
b. simulating osetoclasts
c. stimulating osteblasts
d. decreasing endosteum activity
- Which of the following movements is an example of an isometric contraction of the masseter muscles?
a. Sticking out your tongue
b. Clenching your teeth
- Aerobic exercise has more of an impact on increasing muscle endurance than weight lifting because aerobic exercise:
a. Increases mitochondria production in the muscle fiber.
b. decreases myoglobin production in the muscle fiber.
c. increases hemoglobin production in the muscle fiber.
d. increases the number of myofibrils faster than weight lifting.
- _________________ are part of the afferent division of the nervous system, while _______________ are part of the efferent division.
a. sensory neurons; interneurons
b. interneurons, motor neurons
c. sensory neurons, motor neurons
d. motor neurons, sensory neurons
- Which answer below identifies structures of the nervous system in order from smallest to largest?
a. Axon, sarcomere, nerve, cauda equina, spinal cord
b. Axon, osteon, nerve, cauda equina, spinal cord
c. Actin, neuron, nerve, spinal cord, cauda equina
d. Axon, neuron, nerves, cauda equina, spinal cord
- The _______________ lobe of the brain is the center of visual association; the ______________ lobe is responsible for the auditory association; the __________________ lobe controls sensory association; and the_________________ lobe maintains motor association.
a. frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital,
b. frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital
c. occipital, temporal, parietal, frontal
d. occipital, temporal, frontal, parietal
- Which bodily structure contains all of the following sensory receptors: thermoreceptors, proprioceptors, pain receptors and mechanoreceptors?
b. Neural tissue
c. visceral organs
d. skeletal muscle
- Which answer below lists the levels of organization in the human body in sequence from the simplest to the most complex?
a. Cells, molecules, tissues, organs, organ systems, organism
b. Molecules, cells tissues, organs, organ systems, organism
c. Tissues, molecules, cells, organs, organ systems, organsism
- the smallest living uint in the body is a/an?
- a marathon runner’s body temperature is rising. His body begins to sweat. The drying sweat on his skin acts as a cooling mechanism to reverse his body temperature (the stimulas), so that he will not overheat. This mechanism is an example of which type of homeostatic mechanism?
a. Negative feedback
c. positive feedback
- Alka, Seltzer is an example of a/an ______________ because it neautralizes stomach acid by removing excess hydrogen ions in the stomach.
- Which of the following is an example of an organic compound found in the human body?
d. Carbon Dioxide