Which memory system briefly holds a largely accurate reproduction of the original sensory input?

Review for Final Exam

General Psychology

Dr. Thomas

1. A recurrent issue in psychology has been whether differences between individuals are attributable to

a. experience or learning.

b. biology or physiology.

c. nutrition or learning.

d. hereditary or environment.

2. Wilhelm Wundt is considered to be the “Father of Psychology” because

a. first emphasized the unconscious causes of behavior.

b. emphasized the importance of observable behavior.

c. first questioned how the mind worked.

d. established the first scientific psychology laboratory.

3. The major advantage of experimentation over other research methods is that

a. other methods require more funding than experiments.

b. experiments allow for examination of cause-and-effect relations among variables.

c. experiments are more easily generalizable to real-life situations.

d. experiments require less time from subjects than do the other research methods.

4. If researchers were to find a strong negative correlation between the amount of alcohol consumed and the frequency of nightmares, then they could conclude

a. a low level of alcohol consumption is associated with low frequency of nightmares.

b. consuming alcohol causes nightmares.

c. a high level of alcohol consumption is associated with a low frequency of nightmares.

d. a high level of alcohol consumption is associated with a high frequency of nightmares.

5. A psychologist wants to study fears in preschoolers. Thus, she uses the survey method, and interviews 100 four year-old children. The children interviewed are to all preschoolers as

a. A sample is to a population.

b. A control group is to an experimental group.

c. an experimental group is to a control group.

d. a population is to a sample.

6. Christine’s car breaks down on the highway. She looks into her engine and accidentally touches something hot. Her hand immediately pulls away even before she realizes she has burned herself. This pulling away behavior is controlled by the

a. spinal cord.

b. peripheral nervous system.

c. brain.

d. autonomic nervous system.

7. Visual interpretation occurs mainly in the

a. frontal lobe.

b. parietal lobe.

c. occipital lobe.

d. temporal lobe.

8. The organization and interpretation of incoming sensory data is called

a. sensation.

b. attention.

c. perception

d. psychophysics.

9. The “paradox” of REM sleep is that

a. REM periods get longer while Non-REM periods get shorter.

b. an almost paralyzed body co-exists with a very active brain.

c. dreams take place in real time rather than in an instant.

d. even people who insist they don’t dream, do so during REM periods.

10. If psychological test is designed to measure anxiety but is found to measure creativity instead, the test is considered to be

a. unreliable.

b. invalid.

c. not objective.

d. not standardized.

11. The type of conditioning that depends on the consequence of the behavior is

a. higher order conditioning.

b. operant conditioning.

c. classical conditioning.

d. instinctive conditioning.

12. Watson’s “Little Albert” experiment showed that

a. reinforcement is necessary for someone to learn.

b. observational learning is correct.

c. insight learning is correct.

d. fears can be classically conditioned.

13. Infant Terry believes that when her father leaves the room he no longer exists. According to Piaget, Terry lacks

a. intelligence.

b. centration.

c. object permanence.

d. cognitive dissonance.

14. Research suggests that facial expressions such as those of happiness, sadness, anger, and fear are

a. recognized by people of all cultures.

b. learned and differ from society and society.

c. differentially expressed in the East and West.

d. expressions of secondary emotions.

15. Pam must either write a ten-page term paper on an unappealing topic or read and summarize fifteen journal articles for her least favorite class. This student is faced with a(n)

a. approach-avoidance conflict.

b. avoidance-avoidance conflict.

c. approach-approach conflict.

d. multiple approach-avoidance conflict.

16. If Marie, in her debate class, gives a speech that is contrary to her own beliefs, she will probably experience

a. cognitive dissonance.

b. cognitive consistency.

c. cognitive emotionality.

d. approach-approach conflict.

17. Psychoanalysis emphasizes

a. responses to stimuli.

b. unconscious motives.

c. conditioning.

d. conscious motives.

18. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) is

a. a listing and description of psychological disorders.

b. a guide to mental health insurance costs.

c. a book written by Freud.

d. a book of mathematical models used in psychology.

19. A type of therapy that examines distorted and unrealistic thinking is __________ therapy.

a. Humanistic

b. Family

c. Behavioral

d. Cognitive

20. Which of the following statements about Schizophrenia is true?

a. Schizophrenia involves disordered and disturbed thought.

b. Schizophrenia involves the existence of two or more distinct personalities within a single individual.

c. Schizophrenia involves lack of remorse for wrongs committed.

d. Schizophrenia is only found in Western cultures.


21. Emphasized the practical nature of the mind and survival adaptation

22. Attempted to reduce conscious experience to its’ basic elements

23. Emphasized the practical nature of the mind and survival of adaptation

24. Believed the relationship between the parts is more important than individual parts

25. Emphasized the unconscious mind and sexual urges in influencing human behavior

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _


26. Mean: a) 5 b) 10 c) 15 d) 20 e) 25

27. Mode: a) 5 b) 10 c) 15 d) 20 e) 25

28. Median: a) 5 b) 10 c) 15 d) 20 e) 25

29. Range: a) 5 b) 10 c) 15 d) 20 e) 25

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _


30. Motor movement, planning and inhibition

31. Sensory input from body

32. Vision

33. Audition

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

34. Drinking alcohol while taking other central nervous system depressants like Xanax bars is extremely dangerous because both drugs increase the effectiveness of the other in shutting down the _____ which is responsible for coordinating heart rate, blood pressure, respiration, and several reflexes like coughing and sneezing.

a. Pons

b. Cerebellum

c. Medulla

d. spinal cord



35. Hue (Color)

36. Volume

37. Pitch

38. Brightness or Dullness of color

39. Saturation

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

40. The process of interpreting and organizing the nervous system’s response to a stimulus is known as

a. adaptation

b. sensation

c. perception

d. psychophysics

41. The process by which sensory organs transform mechanical, chemical, or light energy into electrochemical energy or neural transmission is called

a. transduction

b. adaptation

c. psychophysics

d. perception

42. Learning refers to

a. a change in behavior that is demonstrated immediately.

b. a change in behavior that results from disease or maturation.

c. a relatively enduring change in potential behavior that results from experience.

d. all changes in behavior.

43. Sometimes when young children see lightening they cover their ears. The covering of the ears following the flash of light is

a. a conditioned stimulus.

b. a conditioned response.

c. an unconditioned response.

d. an unconditioned stimulus.

44. Which of the following discovered that learning sometimes involves the association of two stimuli (i.e. a bell with the presentation of dog food)?

a. Thorndike c. Tolman

b. Pavlov d. Skinner

45. “Any event that increases the probability that a response will occur” is the definition of

a. primary reinforcers. c. rewards.

b. operant conditioning. d. reinforcement.

46. The technique of “rewarding success approximations of the desired behavior” for obtaining an initial operant response of a rat pressing a bar is called

a. shaping c. physical guidance

b. modeling d. verbal instruction

47. The use of an alarm clock is a good example of

a. classical conditioning b. negative reinforcement

c. punishment. d. positive reinforcement.

48. According to Bandura’s social-cognitive theory, children who view aggression are more likely to be aggressive was based on the

a. Bobo doll experiment

b. Little Albert experiment

c. Milgram’s experiment

d. Ash’s experiment

49. The three processes involved in memory are

a. encoding, rehearsal, and retrieval.

b. encoding, storage, and retrieval.

c. memorizing, reciting, and recalling.

d. recall, recognition, and relearning.

50. Which memory system briefly holds a largely accurate reproduction of the original sensory input?

a. sensory memory c. medium-term memory

b. short-term memory d. long-term memory

51. The most effective way to keep information in short-tem memory (STM) is by

a. overlearning it. c. rehearsing it over and over.

b. using a mnemonic device. d. converting it into a visual image.

52. The memories you have of your first day of psychology class this semester are in your

a. chronological memory. c. sensory memory.

b. long term memory. d. short term memory.

53. Which of the following is not a way to test memory?

a. recall c. recognition

b. rehearsal d. relearning

54. The technique Ebbinghaus used to study LTM was

a. recall. c. relearning.

b. recognition. d. overlearning.

55. When you mentally group objects or events into general cognitive categories, you

a. solve a problem. c. form a concept.

b. form a mental image. d. make a decision.

56. According to the lectures, in order to think you must first have

a) experiences

b) learning

c) memory

d) all of the above

57. What is another name for a natural concept?

a. fuzzy c. formal

b. common d. cool

58. _______ do (does) not guarantee a correct solution; while ________ do (does guarantee a correct solution to a problem, but when they work they tend to allow for more rapid solutions.

a. incubation / heuristics c. algorithms / heuristics

b. heuristics / incubation d. heuristics / algorithms

59. A course in grammar would be primarily concerned with ________; a literature course would more likely be concerned with ________.

a. syntax / semantics c. syntax / morphemes

b. semantics / syntax d. morphemes / semantics

60. Whorf’s hypothesis that people think differently in different languages is called the

a. linguistic-relativity hypothesis.

b. genetic hypothesis.

c. exemplar hypothesis.

d. linguistic-acquisition-device hypothesis.

61. Which of the following is not an effect motivation has on our actions?

a. It directs or defines the direction of the resulting behavior.

b. It has an impact on how vigorous or intense a behavior is.

c. It controls instinctive behaviors.

d. It energizes or activates one to behave in a certain way.

62. The correct order of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, from lowest to highest, is

a. safety, biological, esteem, love and belongingness, self-actualization.

b. self-actualization, esteem, love and belongingness, safety, biological.

c. biological, esteem, love and belongingness, safety, self-actualization.

d. biological, safety, love and belongingness, esteem, self-actualization.

63. ________ is characterized by a refusal to eat adequate amounts of food. ________ is associated with episodes of binge-eating followed by purging.

a. anorexia nervosa / bulimia c. starvation diets / apnea

b. bulimia / anorexia nervosa d. bulimia / obesity

64. The four integral components of human emotions are

a. cognitive processes, subjective feelings, behavioral reactions, and facial expressions.

b. primary appraisal, secondary appraisal, behavioral reactions, and physiological arousal.

c. cognitive processes, subjective feelings, physiological arousal, and behavioral reactions.

d. cognitive processes, stressors, physiological arousal, and subjective feelings.

65. The physiological component of emotion is closely associated with the

a. autonomic nervous system. c. skeletal or somatic nervous system.

b. central nervous system. d. brain stem functions.

66. The James-Lange theory is supported by evidence that indicates that

a. the hypothalamus is involved in emotional expression.

b. people report less-intense emotional feelings after suffering a spinal cord injury.

c. following a fear response, people experience elation.

d. individuals tend to cognitively look for an appropriate emotional label for physiological changes.

67. The Cannon-Bard theory states that

a. emotional experiences and physical changes occur simultaneously.

b. physical changes are necessary for emotional experiences.

c. emotional experiences precede physical changes.

d. emotional experiences follow physical changes.

68. In Schachter and Singer’s experiment, subjects who were uninformed or misinformed concerning the side effects of “Suproxin” and waited with a confederate who acted happy or euphoric, tended to

a. provide no emotional label to their arousal.

b. label their arousal as happy also.

c. label their arousal as anger directed at the “silly” confederate.

d. report no changes in their physical state.

69. Unlike psychologists who emphasize the role of learning, psychologists who emphasize maturation view development as a ________ process that results in ________ changes.

a. continuous / qualitative c. discontinuous / qualitative

b. continuous / quantitative d. discontinuous / quantitative

70. If a woman gives birth to twins, and one of the twins is a boy and the other a girl, it can be concluded that the twins are _______ twins.

a. monozygotic

b. dizygotic

c. identical

d. You require more information before you can reach a conclusion.

71. In order, the three stages of prenatal development are:

a. embryonic, fetal, prenatal. c. germinal (zygote), embryonic, fetal.

b. germinal (zygote), nonviable, viable. d. embryonic, germinal (Zygote), fetal.

72. That babies have proportionally larger heads than adults illustrates the ________ pattern of development.

a. proximocaudal c. cephalocaudal

b. proximodistal d. cephalodistal

73. The correct order of Piaget’s stages of cognitive development is:

a. sensorimotor, concrete operations, preoperational, formal operations.

b. preoperational, sensorimotor, concrete operations, formal operations.

c. concrete operations, preoperational, sensorimotor, formal operations.

d. sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operations, formal operations.

74. Harlow’s study revealed that ________ was more important in attachment then being fed.

a. the odor of the feeding mother c. contact comfort

b. the type of food being given d. the taste of the milk

75. The “strange situation” is used to evaluate

a. a child’s stage of cognitive development. c. mother–infant attachment.

b. infant–mother attachment. d. a child’s stage of psychosocial development

76. The parent who establishes reasonable rules in an atmosphere of warmth and open dialogue would be a(n) ________ parent.

a. authoritarian c. permissive

b. authoritative d. autocratic

78. For every developing individual, during the first few weeks of prenatal development the gonads have the capacity to become

a. either testes or ovaries. c. Both of the above.

b. either a penis or a clitoris. d. Neither of the above.

79. Which of the following is a secondary sex characteristic?

a. pubic hair c. adult height

b. a penis or vagina d. none of the above

80. Advantages such as being poised, popular, and academically successful are associated with

a. early-maturing girls. c. early-maturing boys.

b. late-maturing girls. d. late-maturing boys.

81. When people have cognitively matured to the point at which they can explore hypothetical or “what if” possibilities, Piaget would say that they are in the ________ stage.

a. sensorimotor c. concrete-operations

b. preoperational d. formal-operations

82. Kohlberg was more interested in a person’s ________ rather than in his or her ________.

a. moral behavior / moral reasoning

b. yes or no answer to a moral dilemma / moral behavior

c. yes or no answer to a moral dilemma / moral reasoning

d. moral reasoning / yes or no answer to a moral dilemma

83. The popular image of the teenage years as a time of rebellion, storm, and stress is

a. substantiated by studies. c. more myth than fact.

b. applicable only to early adolescent years. d. true only in America.

84. ________ intelligence results from accumulated knowledge and is closely linked to education and experience. ________ intelligence allows a person to conceptualize abstract information and is relatively independent of education.

a. Crystallized / Fluid c. Problem-finding / Dialectic-operation

b. Fluid / Crystallized d. Dialectic-operation / Problem-solving

85. One study linked satisfaction with single life to

a. avoiding the fear of divorce. c. not needing sexual relations.

b. the number and types of friendships. d. having more money to spend.

86. A possible explanation of why fluid intelligence declines in older years and crystallized intelligence remains the same is that

a. fluid intelligence is genetic.

b. fluid intelligence is learned.

c. older people are not challenged to use their fluid intelligence.

d. older people do not need fluid intelligence.

87. Erikson’s developmental task of the older years—ego integrity versus despair—is consistent with the idea that older people

a. select a lifestyle that reflects their personality. c. conduct a life review.

b. are concerned with problem finding. d. demonstrate postconventional thought

88. A common theme in definitions of personality is that

a. the unconscious mind plays a prominent role.

b. the environment shapes our personalities.

c. personality refers to distinctive patterns of behavior.

d. man’s primary motivations are negative in nature.

89. The storehouse of largely unconscious, biologically based, instinctive drives that provide the basic energy source for the entire personality system describes the

a. superego. c. libido.

b. id. d. ego.

90. The ________ uses ________ to protect itself from harsh aspects of reality.

a. ego / fixations c. superego / defense mechanisms

b. id / offense mechanisms d. ego / defense mechanisms

91. According to Rogers, the person that you would like to become is your ________ self.

a. goal c. real

b. ideal d. future

92. Maslow proposed that if all lesser needs are met, a person would be motivated toward

a. self-determination. c. self-esteem.

b. self-actualization. d. the third force.

93. If a psychologist asks you to tell a story concerning a scene on a card he or she shows you, that psychologist is giving you the

a. CPI. c. 16PF.

b. TAT. d. Rorschach inkblot test.

94. If a psychologist asks you to tell what a blot of ink might be, that psychologist is giving you the

a. CPI. c. 16PF.

b. TAT. d. Rorschach inkblot test.

95. Personality assessment techniques designed to tap unconscious thoughts and feelings are

a. interviews. c. projective tests.

b. subjective tests. d. objective tests.

96. Which of the following criteria is not used to distinguish normal from abnormal behavior?

a. emotional discomfort c. atypicality

b. depression d. social unacceptability

97. The term ________ has historically been used to describe less severe disorders. The term ________ has been used to describe more severe disorders.

a. psychological / psychiatric c. psychosis / neurosis

b. mood disorder / schizophrenia d. neurosis / psychosis

98. A person with a ________ experiences anxiety in only certain specific situations, whereas an individual with ________ experiences chronic anxiety in a wide variety of situations.

a. phobia / generalized anxiety disorder c. social phobia / simple phobia

b. generalized anxiety disorder / phobia d. simple phobia / obsessive compulsive disorder

99. Individuals like Eve from The Three Faces of Eve who display a number of separate personalities are suffering from

a. dissociative amnesia. c. schizophrenia.

b. conversion disorder. d. dissociative identity disorder.

100. People who become lethargic and sleep more than usual typify the mood disorder termed

a. major depressive disorder. c. conversion disorder.

b. bipolar disorder. d. schizophrenic disorder.

For 10 through 13 match the following psychological perspectives using the following:

a) Structuralism

b) Behaviorism

c) Functionalism

d) Psychoanalysis

e) Gestalt psychology ychoanalysis

e) Gestalt psychology

Without the use of a calculator, use the following test scores [ 5, 20, 5, 5, 10, 10, 10, 15, 5, 15 ] to determine the answers for 26 through 29.

For 30 through 33, match the Lobe of the Cerebrum with the most common function:

a) Frontal Lobe b) Occipital Lobe c) Parietal Lobe d) Temporal Lobe

For 35 through 39, match the following with the correct perception:

a) wavelength b) amplitude (wave height) c) consistency of wave length